Hibernate is equiped with an extremely powerful query language that (quite intentionally) looks very much like SQL. But don't be fooled by the syntax; HQL is fully object-oriented, understanding notions like inheritence, polymorphism and association.
Queries are case-insensitive, except for names of Java classes and properties. So SeLeCT is the same as sELEct is the same as SELECT but net.sf.hibernate.eg.FOO is not net.sf.hibernate.eg.Foo and foo.barSet is not foo.BARSET.
This manual uses lowercase HQL keywords. Some users find queries with uppercase keywords more readable, but we find this convention ugly when embedded in Java code.
The simplest possible Hibernate query is of the form:
which simply returns all instances of the class eg.Cat.
Most of the time, you will need to assign an alias, since you will want to refer to the Cat in other parts of the query.
from eg.Cat as cat
This query assigns the alias cat to Cat instances, so we could use that alias later in the query. The as keyword is optional; we could also write:
from eg.Cat cat
Multiple classes may appear, resulting in a cartesian product or "cross" join.
from Formula, Parameter
from Formula as form, Parameter as param
It is considered good practice to name query aliases using an initial lowercase, consistent with Java naming standards for local variables (eg. domesticCat).
We may also assign aliases to associated entities, or even to elements of a collection of values, using a join.
from eg.Cat as cat inner join cat.mate as mate left outer join cat.kittens as kitten from eg.Cat as cat left join cat.mate.kittens as kittens from Formula form full join form.parameter param
The supported join types are borrowed from ANSI SQL
left outer join
right outer join
full join (not usually useful)
The inner join, left outer join and right outer join constructs may be abbreviated.
from eg.Cat as cat join cat.mate as mate left join cat.kittens as kitten
In addition, a "fetch" join allows associations or collections of values to be initialized along with their parent objects, using a single select. This is particularly useful in the case of a collection. It effectively overrides the outer join and lazy declarations of the mapping file for associations and collections.
from eg.Cat as cat inner join fetch cat.mate left join fetch cat.kittens
A fetch join does not usually need to assign an alias, because the associated objects should not be used in the where clause (or any other clause). Also, the associated objects are not returned directly in the query results. Instead, they may be accessed via the parent object.
Note that, in the current implementation, only one collection role may be fetched in a query (everything else would be non-performant). Note also that the fetch construct may not be used in queries called using scroll() or iterate(). Finally, note that full join fetch and right join fetch are not meaningful.
The select clause picks which objects and properties to return in the query result set. Consider:
select mate from eg.Cat as cat inner join cat.mate as mate
The query will select mates of other Cats. Actually, you may express this query more compactly as:
select cat.mate from eg.Cat cat
You may even select collection elements, using the special elements function. The following query returns all kittens of any cat.
select elements(cat.kittens) from eg.Cat cat
Queries may return properties of any value type including properties of component type:
select cat.name from eg.DomesticCat cat where cat.name like 'fri%' select cust.name.firstName from Customer as cust
Queries may return multiple objects and/or properties as an array of type Object
select mother, offspr, mate.name from eg.DomesticCat as mother inner join mother.mate as mate left outer join mother.kittens as offspr
or as an actual typesafe Java object
select new Family(mother, mate, offspr) from eg.DomesticCat as mother join mother.mate as mate left join mother.kittens as offspr
assuming that the class Family has an appropriate constructor.
HQL queries may even return the results of aggregate functions on properties:
select avg(cat.weight), sum(cat.weight), max(cat.weight), count(cat) from eg.Cat cat
Collections may also appear inside aggregate functions in the select clause.
select cat, count( elements(cat.kittens) ) from eg.Cat cat group by cat
The supported aggregate functions are
avg(...), sum(...), min(...), max(...)
count(...), count(distinct ...), count(all...)
The distinct and all keywords may be used and have the same semantics as in SQL.
select distinct cat.name from eg.Cat cat select count(distinct cat.name), count(cat) from eg.Cat cat
A query like:
from eg.Cat as cat
returns instances not only of Cat, but also of subclasses like DomesticCat. Hibernate queries may name any Java class or interface in the from clause. The query will return instances of all persistent classes that extend that class or implement the interface. The following query would return all persistent objects:
from java.lang.Object o
The interface Named might be implemented by various persistent classes:
from eg.Named n, eg.Named m where n.name = m.name
Note that these last two queries will require more than one SQL SELECT. This means that the order by clause does not correctly order the whole result set. (It also means you can't call these queries using Query.scroll().)
The where clause allows you to narrow the list of instances returned.
from eg.Cat as cat where cat.name='Fritz'
returns instances of Cat named 'Fritz'.
select foo from eg.Foo foo, eg.Bar bar where foo.startDate = bar.date
will return all instances of Foo for which there exists an instance of bar with a date property equal to the startDate property of the Foo. Compound path expressions make the where clause extremely powerful. Consider:
from eg.Cat cat where cat.mate.name is not null
This query translates to an SQL query with a table (inner) join. If you were to write something like
from eg.Foo foo where foo.bar.baz.customer.address.city is not null
you would end up with a query that would require four table joins in SQL.
The = operator may be used to compare not only properties, but also instances:
from eg.Cat cat, eg.Cat rival where cat.mate = rival.mate select cat, mate from eg.Cat cat, eg.Cat mate where cat.mate = mate
The special property (lowercase) id may be used to reference the unique identifier of an object. (You may also use its property name.)
from eg.Cat as cat where cat.id = 123 from eg.Cat as cat where cat.mate.id = 69
The second query is efficient. No table join is required!
Properties of composite identifiers may also be used. Suppose Person has a composite identifier consisting of country and medicareNumber.
from bank.Person person where person.id.country = 'AU' and person.id.medicareNumber = 123456 from bank.Account account where account.owner.id.country = 'AU' and account.owner.id.medicareNumber = 123456
Once again, the second query requires no table join.
Likewise, the special property class accesses the discriminator value of an instance in the case of polymorphic persistence. A Java class name embedded in the where clause will be translated to its discriminator value.
from eg.Cat cat where cat.class = eg.DomesticCat
You may also specify properties of components or composite user types (and of components of components, etc). Never try to use a path-expression that ends in a property of component type (as opposed to a property of a component). For example, if store.owner is an entity with a component address
store.owner.address.city // okay store.owner.address // error!
An "any" type has the special properties id and class, allowing us to express a join in the following way (where AuditLog.item is a property mapped with <any>).
from eg.AuditLog log, eg.Payment payment where log.item.class = 'eg.Payment' and log.item.id = payment.id
Notice that log.item.class and payment.class would refer to the values of completely different database columns in the above query.
Expressions allowed in the where clause include most of the kind of things you could write in SQL:
mathematical operators +, -, *, /
binary comparison operators =, >=, <=, <>, !=, like
logical operations and, or, not
string concatenation ||
SQL scalar functions like upper() and lower()
Parentheses ( ) indicate grouping
in, between, is null
JDBC IN parameters ?
named parameters :name, :start_date, :x1
SQL literals 'foo', 69, '1970-01-01 10:00:01.0'
Java public static final constants eg.Color.TABBY
in and between may be used as follows:
from eg.DomesticCat cat where cat.name between 'A' and 'B' from eg.DomesticCat cat where cat.name in ( 'Foo', 'Bar', 'Baz' )
and the negated forms may be written
from eg.DomesticCat cat where cat.name not between 'A' and 'B' from eg.DomesticCat cat where cat.name not in ( 'Foo', 'Bar', 'Baz' )
Likewise, is null and is not null may be used to test for null values.
Booleans may be easily used in expressions by declaring HQL query substitutions in Hibernate configuration:
<property name="hibernate.query.substitutions">true 1, false 0</property>
This will replace the keywords true and false with the literals 1 and 0 in the translated SQL from this HQL:
from eg.Cat cat where cat.alive = true
You may test the size of a collection with the special property size, or the special size() function.
from eg.Cat cat where cat.kittens.size > 0 from eg.Cat cat where size(cat.kittens) > 0
For indexed collections, you may refer to the minimum and maximum indices using minIndex and maxIndex. Similarly, you may refer to the minimum and maximum elements of a collection of basic type using minElement and maxElement.
from Calendar cal where cal.holidays.maxElement > current date
There are also functional forms (which, unlike the constructs above, are not case sensitive):
from Order order where maxindex(order.items) > 100 from Order order where minelement(order.items) > 10000
The SQL functions any, some, all, exists, in are supported when passed the element or index set of a collection (elements and indices functions) or the result of a subquery (see below).
select mother from eg.Cat as mother, eg.Cat as kit where kit in elements(foo.kittens) select p from eg.NameList list, eg.Person p where p.name = some elements(list.names) from eg.Cat cat where exists elements(cat.kittens) from eg.Player p where 3 > all elements(p.scores) from eg.Show show where 'fizard' in indices(show.acts)
Note that these constructs - size, elements, indices, minIndex, maxIndex, minElement, maxElement - have certain usage restrictions:
in a where clause: only for databases with subselects
in a select clause: only elements and indices make sense
Elements of indexed collections (arrays, lists, maps) may be referred to by index (in a where clause only):
from Order order where order.items.id = 1234 select person from Person person, Calendar calendar where calendar.holidays['national day'] = person.birthDay and person.nationality.calendar = calendar select item from Item item, Order order where order.items[ order.deliveredItemIndices ] = item and order.id = 11 select item from Item item, Order order where order.items[ maxindex(order.items) ] = item and order.id = 11
The expression inside  may even be an arithmetic expression.
select item from Item item, Order order where order.items[ size(order.items) - 1 ] = item
HQL also provides the built-in index() function, for elements of a one-to-many association or collection of values.
select item, index(item) from Order order join order.items item where index(item) < 5
Scalar SQL functions supported by the underlying database may be used
from eg.DomesticCat cat where upper(cat.name) like 'FRI%'
If you are not yet convinced by all this, think how much longer and less readable the following query would be in SQL:
select cust from Product prod, Store store inner join store.customers cust where prod.name = 'widget' and store.location.name in ( 'Melbourne', 'Sydney' ) and prod = all elements(cust.currentOrder.lineItems)
Hint: something like
SELECT cust.name, cust.address, cust.phone, cust.id, cust.current_order FROM customers cust, stores store, locations loc, store_customers sc, product prod WHERE prod.name = 'widget' AND store.loc_id = loc.id AND loc.name IN ( 'Melbourne', 'Sydney' ) AND sc.store_id = store.id AND sc.cust_id = cust.id AND prod.id = ALL( SELECT item.prod_id FROM line_items item, orders o WHERE item.order_id = o.id AND cust.current_order = o.id )
The list returned by a query may be ordered by any property of a returned class or components:
from eg.DomesticCat cat order by cat.name asc, cat.weight desc, cat.birthdate
The optional asc or desc indicate ascending or descending order respectively.
A query that returns aggregate values may be grouped by any property of a returned class or components:
select cat.color, sum(cat.weight), count(cat) from eg.Cat cat group by cat.color select foo.id, avg( elements(foo.names) ), max( indices(foo.names) ) from eg.Foo foo group by foo.id
Note: You may use the elements and indices constructs inside a select clause, even on databases with no subselects.
A having clause is also allowed.
select cat.color, sum(cat.weight), count(cat) from eg.Cat cat group by cat.color having cat.color in (eg.Color.TABBY, eg.Color.BLACK)
SQL functions and aggregate functions are allowed in the having and order by clauses, if supported by the underlying database (ie. not in MySQL).
select cat from eg.Cat cat join cat.kittens kitten group by cat having avg(kitten.weight) > 100 order by count(kitten) asc, sum(kitten.weight) desc
Note that neither the group by clause nor the order by clause may contain arithmetic expressions.
For databases that support subselects, Hibernate supports subqueries within queries. A subquery must be surrounded by parentheses (often by an SQL aggregate function call). Even correlated subqueries (subqueries that refer to an alias in the outer query) are allowed.
from eg.Cat as fatcat where fatcat.weight > ( select avg(cat.weight) from eg.DomesticCat cat ) from eg.DomesticCat as cat where cat.name = some ( select name.nickName from eg.Name as name ) from eg.Cat as cat where not exists ( from eg.Cat as mate where mate.mate = cat ) from eg.DomesticCat as cat where cat.name not in ( select name.nickName from eg.Name as name )
Hibernate queries can be quite powerful and complex. In fact, the power of the query language is one of Hibernate's main selling points. Here are some example queries very similar to queries that I used on a recent project. Note that most queries you will write are much simpler than these!
The following query returns the order id, number of items and total value of the order for all unpaid orders for a particular customer and given minimum total value, ordering the results by total value. In determining the prices, it uses the current catalog. The resulting SQL query, against the ORDER, ORDER_LINE, PRODUCT, CATALOG and PRICE tables has four inner joins and an (uncorrelated) subselect.
select order.id, sum(price.amount), count(item) from Order as order join order.lineItems as item join item.product as product, Catalog as catalog join catalog.prices as price where order.paid = false and order.customer = :customer and price.product = product and catalog.effectiveDate < sysdate and catalog.effectiveDate >= all ( select cat.effectiveDate from Catalog as cat where cat.effectiveDate < sysdate ) group by order having sum(price.amount) > :minAmount order by sum(price.amount) desc
What a monster! Actually, in real life, I'm not very keen on subqueries, so my query was really more like this:
select order.id, sum(price.amount), count(item) from Order as order join order.lineItems as item join item.product as product, Catalog as catalog join catalog.prices as price where order.paid = false and order.customer = :customer and price.product = product and catalog = :currentCatalog group by order having sum(price.amount) > :minAmount order by sum(price.amount) desc
The next query counts the number of payments in each status, excluding all payments in the AWAITING_APPROVAL status where the most recent status change was made by the current user. It translates to an SQL query with two inner joins and a correlated subselect against the PAYMENT, PAYMENT_STATUS and PAYMENT_STATUS_CHANGE tables.
select count(payment), status.name from Payment as payment join payment.currentStatus as status join payment.statusChanges as statusChange where payment.status.name <> PaymentStatus.AWAITING_APPROVAL or ( statusChange.timeStamp = ( select max(change.timeStamp) from PaymentStatusChange change where change.payment = payment ) and statusChange.user <> :currentUser ) group by status.name, status.sortOrder order by status.sortOrder
If I would have mapped the statusChanges collection as a list, instead of a set, the query would have been much simpler to write.
select count(payment), status.name from Payment as payment join payment.currentStatus as status where payment.status.name <> PaymentStatus.AWAITING_APPROVAL or payment.statusChanges[ maxIndex(payment.statusChanges) ].user <> :currentUser group by status.name, status.sortOrder order by status.sortOrder
The next query uses the MS SQL Server isNull() function to return all the accounts and unpaid payments for the organization to which the current user belongs. It translates to an SQL query with three inner joins, an outer join and a subselect against the ACCOUNT, PAYMENT, PAYMENT_STATUS, ACCOUNT_TYPE, ORGANIZATION and ORG_USER tables.
select account, payment from Account as account left outer join account.payments as payment where :currentUser in elements(account.holder.users) and PaymentStatus.UNPAID = isNull(payment.currentStatus.name, PaymentStatus.UNPAID) order by account.type.sortOrder, account.accountNumber, payment.dueDate
For some databases, we would need to do away with the (correlated) subselect.
select account, payment from Account as account join account.holder.users as user left outer join account.payments as payment where :currentUser = user and PaymentStatus.UNPAID = isNull(payment.currentStatus.name, PaymentStatus.UNPAID) order by account.type.sortOrder, account.accountNumber, payment.dueDate
You can count the number of query results without actually returning them:
( (Integer) session.iterate("select count(*) from ....").next() ).intValue()
To order a result by the size of a collection, use the following query:
select usr.id, usr.name from User as usr left join usr.messages as msg group by usr.id, usr.name order by count(msg)
If your database supports subselects, you can place a condition upon selection size in the where clause of your query:
from User usr where size(usr.messages) >= 1
If your database doesn't support subselects, use the following query:
select usr.id, usr.name from User usr.name join usr.messages msg group by usr.id, usr.name having count(msg) >= 1
As this solution can't return a User with zero messages because of the inner join, the following form is also useful:
select usr.id, usr.name from User as usr left join usr.messages as msg group by usr.id, usr.name having count(msg) = 0
Properties of a JavaBean can be bound to named query parameters:
Query q = s.createQuery("from foo in class Foo where foo.name=:name and foo.size=:size"); q.setProperties(fooBean); // fooBean has getName() and getSize() List foos = q.list();
Collections are pageable by using the Query interface with a filter:
Query q = s.createFilter( collection, "" ); // the trivial filter q.setMaxResults(PAGE_SIZE); q.setFirstResult(PAGE_SIZE * pageNumber); List page = q.list();
Collection elements may be ordered or grouped using a query filter:
Collection orderedCollection = s.filter( collection, "order by this.amount" ); Collection counts = s.filter( collection, "select this.type, count(this) group by this.type" );
You can find the size of a collection without initializing it:
( (Integer) session.iterate("select count(*) from ....").next() ).intValue();